Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Rubella Virus

Rubella virus work like influenza virus, they transform into others. Rubella virus disease is caused by the kind of measles viruses that have transformation into other kind of virus. The frightened make by this virus is not just attack our external body, rubella virus also attack our brain network so the effect will be very serious and can make disable people.

Rubella virus also known as German Measles, because this disease found mainly in German medics, but after the transformation era have been develop, this virus can find in many Europe countries. Rubella virus victim peak in the year of 1964 and 1965, when about 12.5 million of peoples in USA were reported infected by this virus, during this time, 20,000 babies were born with birth defects, about 6,200 babies were stillborn. Infection during pregnancy can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CSR) with serious malformations of the developing fetus.

Thursday, September 7, 2017

Virus Reproduction and Virus Infection

Virus Reproduction

Viruses reproduction begins when the virion comes into contact with a suitable host cell. The DNA or RNA enters the host cell and begins to function as genetic information by directing the synthesis of specific types of proteins that have enzymatic and structural roles. The infectious cycle usually consists of two different stages. In the first, the proteins are produced that are required for the reproduction of the viral DNA or RNA in conjunction with components of the host cell. In the second stage, proteins that make up the virion are produced; these combine with the DNA or RNA to form mature virions, which are the released from the cell. In some cases this release involves the complete disruption and death of the cell, a process known as lysis. In other cases individual virions are released through the cell membrane without killing the cell.

Virus Infection

Slow viruses are disease agents not yet identified but assumed to exist, because the disease resembles viral diseases in their epidemiology. Slow virus diseases are degenerative nerve disorders that take years to develop. They include the human diseases called kuru and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease, a fatal sheep and goat disease called scrapie, and possibly a recently identified cattle disease called bovine spongiform enchepalophaty, among others.

Virus Integration

Many viruses also interact with the host cell in such a way that the viral DNA, instead of replicating independently within the host cell, is integrated into the host cell DNA. It is then replicated and passed on to daughter cells, as are the host cell’s genes. Single or multiple copies of part or all of the viral DNA infecting animals may be incorporated into the host cell DNA. When the viral DNA is integrated, virions are not produced and the host cell is not killed. When a complete copy of viral DNA is present, the cell may return at some time to a lytic mode of virus replication with subsequent production of new virions.

Bacteria Use and Identification

Bacteria Identification

Bacteria Identification is a special technique that is used by biologist and many other scientist, because many of bacteria is useful for human, beside the others can disadvantage for human. Beside can cause diseases, many bacteria type is need by human for food process or industrial uses. To make sure that the bacteria can useful for certain application, people must identify the bacteria that want to use.

The Useful of Bacteria

There are two kind bacteria if see from the uses for human, benefit and disadvantage for human. Most of us think of bacteria as "germs" or microorganism, unseen threats to our health and welfare. But for each of the few disease-producing kinds which can live in the human body, there are hundreds of others upon which we depend for our very existence. Bacteria help us digest our food. Plant will die if no bacteria to convert leaf or other organic matter to humus.


The susceptibility of a given bacterial species to an antibiotic is usually determined either from laboratory tests or from the result of treating an establish ed infection.

In laboratory tests, bacteria isolated from an infected patient are inoculated into tubes containing a liquid culture medium enriched with graded concentration of an antibiotic agent. The lowest concentration of antibiotic that inhibit microbial growth is termed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). When this is compared with concentrations attainable in the body, one can judge whether the bacteria are sensitive, partly sensitive, or resistant to the antibiotic.

Monday, September 4, 2017

Biology Clock

A biological a clock is a self–sustained- internal timing mechanism that controls cyclic pattern, or rhytms, of a living organism. By providing temporal information , such as the time of day, month, or season, nearly all organism are adapted to event in both their internal or external environments. The product of this internal timing are physiological or behavioral even that, over time , vary in intensity.
Such biology time - dependent variability is expressed as a rhythm, or oscillation, with frequency equal to that of the underlying biological clock. Rhythms that occur more than once a day are called ultradian rhythm; one a day circadian; once a lunar day, lunar; and a once of year, circanual.
More about Biology Clock


As a science, biology did not develop until the last few centuries BC. Although hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, influence the development of medicine apart from the role in religion, it was Aristotle who established observation and analysis as the basic tools of biology. From the 3rd century BC to the 2d century AD, studies primarily focused on agriculture and medicine. The Arabs dominated the study of biology during the middle ages and applied their knowledge of the Greeks discoveries to medicine.

Complete Article Histology of Biology